Montjuic is a broad shallow hill with a relatively flat top overlooking the harbour, southwest of downtown. The eastern side of the hill is almost a cliff, giving it a commanding view over the harbour of the city immediately below. The top of the hill was the site of several fortifications, the latest of which, Montjuïc Castle remains today.
This mountain is popular with sports enthusiasts (Palau Sant Jordi), art (National Art Museum of Catalonia) and nature (Montjuic Park). It is very difficult to find an area just like this. With the National Palace and the Magic Fountain as its main attractions, offers many alternatives for an unforgettable day in a unique environment.
Montjuic has long been a strategic location from which to defend the city, so since ancient times there has been a fortress on top. In 1751 the current castle was built by Juan Martin Cermak, who during the Spanish War of Independence was occupied by the French.
As has been a strategic point for the defence of the city, it has been to keep it under control, along with the strength of the Citadel at the other end of town. In December 1842 the troops led by General Espartero during his regency bombarded the city from the castle. And General Juan Prim bomb again between September and November 1843 to end the popular revolution Jamancia.
The castle has also been used numerous times as a prison for political prisoners until the times of the dictatorship of Franco, and where then were shot and buried in the cemetery of the southwest side of the mountain. During the nineteenth and twentieth century was the scene of numerous shootings: many anarchists (including the educator Francisco Ferrer y Guardia), Generals Manuel Llopis and Alvaro Fernandez Goded Burriel, both by the uprising against the Republic, and in 1940 Lluís Companys , president of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
On the occasion of the International Exhibition of 1929, was completed the urbanization of some areas of the mountain, being designed as the central space of the same, why would build the different pavilions that rise from the foot of the mountain and both sides of the avenue that leads from the Plaza of Spain, in the Sants-Montjuic neighborhood, and where you can enjoy a great view.
In 1969, 1971, 1973 and 1975 was disputed Spain Grand Prix Formula 1 at the Montjuïc circuit, which was a street circuit, but due to an accident that killed five spectators in 1975 the FIA decided that Montjuic was a dangerous place to play a F1 Grand Prix.
On March 15, 2007, the Directorate General of Heritage of the Generalitat de Catalunya, Montjuic area declared a Cultural Asset of National Interest (BCIN), by the existence of medieval Jewish cemetery in Barcelona, considered the largest in Europe his time.
Throughout the twentieth century has been producing the transformation of a rough mountain, hilly and wooded at the gates of Barcelona in a huge complex of 250 acres dotted with pavilions, one as unique as that of Mies Van der Rohe, palaces, as National; buildings like the Miró Foundation and construction equipment that left the Olympic Ring, as the 1992 Olympics legacy. All accompanied by a constellation of gardens with its own particular style appearance and frame them, hug and get between them. In Montjuïc include the Botanical Garden and the gardens of Joan Brossa, at the top of the mountain, where the former amusement park.
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